Substantiated cps case


What happen to a case if the file record in the police station and in the court was burn? Hello my wife`s name is julia salazar she is 30 years old of woodland california her phone number is 5306650146 i need the records of text messages an; My cps case finds that the person was not a perpetrator of the child abuse or neglect that occurred. A. May seek administrative review by child abuse and neglect review board. Substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect are those in which there was an investigation by a state agency and there was sufficient evident to confirmed that child abuse and neglect did occur. Legal defense strategies. In other cases CPS may get involved if there is a highly contested custody dispute between parents and allegations of maltreatment The factual basis for the substantiated finding of abuse or neglect (KRS 600. Standard is probable cause. If the report is substantiated, there is nothing for the reporter  Allegations are not substantiated. . (a) Purpose. 365. How can I go about doing that? North Las Vegas, - Answered by a verified Family Lawyer Child Protective Services wasn't created to help parents gain custody from one another. 4. You took part in the services DHHS recommended and DHHS never filed a court case against you. As added by P. g. . Based upon the information received through the investigation of this report the allegations have been found to be substantiated. A substantiated report without further intervention means that you are going to be reported to the child abuse central index but that DCFS has  What is a substantiated finding? If the Division finds that your case is substantiated, your child(ren) may be taken from your home and you may need to follow up  As you know, (basically) substantiation is the decision that CPS makes at the end of an investigation or initial assessment that validates that child maltreatment  DCS will make a finding of “substantiated” when facts obtained during the assessment provide For each allegation, the Family Case Manager (FCM) will: 1. Assist the Develop a case plan with the family. The focus of CPS is on protecting the child from harm or risk of harm and to make it safe for the child to live with the parent or caretaker. Generally, the term abuse encompasses the most serious harms committed against children. Child Protective Services (CPS) is the first step to ensure the safety and permanency of children who are reported as being abused or neglected. 1177/1077559505274506CHILD MALTREATENT / Month XXXXCross et al. Case/ Substantiated Case A central registry/substantiated case is any case that the depart-ment determines that a preponderance of evidence of child abuse and/neglect occurred and any one of the following: The case is classified as Category I or II (Section 8 and 8d of the CPL). rable to that of children in substantiated cases (Drake,. 56. (En Español) Child Abuse. The information a CPS worker gathers in order to reach a finding about child maltreatment results in the testimony the worker provides which contributes to the court’ judgments about adjudication. Total – CPS report investigation or assessments completed (disposition) o Substantiated or Indicated – Reports with a substantiated or indicated finding. Indiana Statutes and Case Law on DCS Assessments and Expungement of DCS Records By Katherine Meger Kelsey, J. " If DCF says the report is "not supported," this  Feb 3, 2003 confirmation which may be used to substantiate a finding of abuse or neglect; Services (CCDCFS) CPS conducting child abuse and neglect I. However The Division of Family and Children Services will enter the names of all maltreators with a substantiated case of child abuse and/or neglect on or after July 1, 2016 into the Child Protective Services Information System (Child Abuse Registry). Washington, DC. I would like to appeal a cps case that was substantiated against me. If the case is determined to be unsubstantiated, the CPS agency may still provide services. "Indicated" means that the allegation could not be conclusively substantiated, but there was sufficient evidence to suspect maltreatment. The letter must include: Why Has the CPS Brought Charges in the Salisbury Case That Their Own Guidance Shows Cannot Possibly be Substantiated? Crown Prosecution Service, Salisbury Understanding The CPS Investigation. Have 60 days to request reversal. if you’ve been investigated by CPS you’ve probably had your name added to a “child abuse index” listing that will prevent you from holding certain types of jobs, even if you were innocent of the charges. It is possible to have a CHINS case for the child, and a criminal case against the Do all "substantiated" reports of abuse or neglect received by CPS lead to a  DFCS to establish and maintain a registry of all substantiated cases of abuse Child Protective Services (CPS) historical information remains in the Georgia  Sep 12, 2018 For the cases it investigates, CPS must make a determination whether to substantiate or unsubstantiate the report. How can I go about doing that? North Las Vegas, - Answered by a verified Family Lawyer "Substantiated" means that the allegation was conclusively founded. To this end, Georgia Senate Bill 138, Section 11, was codified as Official Code of Georgia Annotated (O. IC 31-33-27-5 Substantiated reports; perpetrator petitions for expungements Sec. Further ticklers will be assigned to the IA supervisor and person with primary case assignment. Family may be Assess suspected cases of abuse and neglect. Decision points  moderate-risk CPS cases without launching a formal investigation. Understanding The CPS Investigation. INVESTIGATION AND CONTROL OF CRIMES AND CRIMINALS [11006 - 11482] (b) “Substantiated report” means a report that is determined by the  (3) Upon receipt of the request for a fair hearing, the department will conduct an informal review of the substantiated report and the case record information. D. Physical abuse was behind 17. Substantiated cases are classified as either low risk, moderate risk or high risk. California’s rate of substantiated cases of child abuse or neglect declined from 12 cases per 1,000 children ages 0-17 in 1998 to 8. Who made the report? California law requires that the identity of the reporting person remain confidential. likelihood that an investigation was substantiated in DR and non-DR counties after. This information can prevent you from becoming a foster parent, and if you have several established cases on record, the Division may eventually decide your case is substantiated and put your information on the Child Abuse Registry. If unsatisfied may request judicial review in county of residence within 60 days. (See Five Category Disposition. Jonson-Reid, Way, & Chung, 2003). An abused child is a child whose parent or other person legally responsible for his/her care inflicts upon the child serious physical injury, creates a substantial risk of serious physical injury, or commits an act of sex abuse against the child. Any person who suspects child abuse or neglect is encouraged to contact the Sacramento County Child Abuse Hotline at 875-KIDS (875-5437). The agency exists to remove children from situations where they're being abused, but once the kids are in CPS's hands, parents have NO control over where they'll be placed. CPS operates a toll-free hotline (1-800-800-5556) for people to The police filed a false report and all the charges with the police and court were dropped so no convictions. Benefits: 10. This rate is less than one-half of the rate (44%) of medically diagnosed child abuse cases substantiated by civilian Child Protective Services (CPS). CPS March 2019. Derelle Watson-Duvall, J. Substantiated reports are kept on file at both ChildLine and the  The term “CPS investigation” has been changed to “DCS assessment. The assigned CPS case manager develops a proposed case plan for every case within 21 days of case assignment. LNE (Low Number Event) refers to data that have been suppressed because there were fewer than 20 substantiated cases of child abuse. Within 60 days (unless extended with good cause) after the report is received, the CPS caseworker will make a finding of unsubstantiated or substantiated. 5 percent of cases and 7. (a) This section applies to information relating to substantiated reports in any records of the department. Category V: CPS determines there is no evidence of child abuse or neglect and Before 1999, for CPS to “substantiate” a child abuse or neglect case meant for   Can a CPS worker take a child into custody without taking the case to court first? What happens What happens if CPS finds "substantiated" abuse or neglect? Sep 26, 2017 DSS substantiation refers to a finding a department of social services makes when an investigation supports an allegation of abuse or neglect. The police filed a false report and all the charges with the police and court were dropped so no convictions. If there is credible evidence that abuse or neglect occurred, the report is substantiated. CT. EXPUNGING ALLEGATIONS OF CHILD ABUSE . If a new report of suspected child maltreatment is received after a case has been opened for ongoing services, the SSW enters the new referral and follows guidelines for CPS Intake and CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT REPORT – FORM 431 (Child Maltreatment Information) Case Number: HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS INFORMATION. It is something that is supported or verified by corroborating information. If a new report of suspected child maltreatment is received after a case has been opened for ongoing services, the SSW enters the new referral and follows guidelines for CPS Intake and Less than half of the reported cases of child abuse and neglect are substantiated (Knudsen, 1988; NCCAN, 1988). Role* Race Foster Child . ” A finding of substantiated (sometimes referred to as founded) typically means that the child protective services (CPS) agency believes that an incident of child abuse or neglect, as defined by State law, In this case, several outcomes can occur. Expunging DCS and CHINs cases Under Indiana law, it is not just regular misdemeanor and felony cases that can be expunged and hidden (or in some cases removed) from you record. The review of the case points out the previous CPS history with two open cases at the time 2-year-old Colton Turner died and how “the Medical Examiner’s Office conducted an autopsy and CPS has contacted your family in response to a report of suspected child abuse or neglect. County & Case# (If Applicable) Select secondary caretaker (2nd CT) and any maltreated children (MT Child). When investigating Using a national sample of 1,461 child protective services (CPS) investigations in the United States, we examine differences between black and white families with regard to caseworker ratings of risk and harm to the child, as well as the probability that a case is substantiated for maltreatment. The Attorney General administers the Child Abuse Central Index (CACI), which was created by the Legislature in 1965 as a tool for state and local agencies to help protect the health and safety of California's children. If they decide child abuse or neglect happened, they will “substantiate. What You Should Know About Your Child Abuse, Neglect or CPS Case What is CPS? Child Protective Services (CPS) is a part of the Texas Department of Family and Protective Services (DFPS), a State Agency set up by law to make sure children are safe and to help families create a safe environment for their children. G. L. it meets the criteria to be substantiated (sometimes referred to as founded) or   Child Protective case about the the substantiation issue. There were 2,000 cases coded from a larger one-year dataset of child protective referrals. Many children suffered from more than one form of maltreatment. They can either find a case to be “substantiated” or “unsubstantiated. But the substantiated report is still with CPS. The Child Abuse Registry is a list maintained by the Department of Children’s Services that includes the names of people that have been substantiated as perpetrators of child abuse or neglect. 6 percent of substantiated cases were for psychological maltreatment. remains substantiated after Administrative Review, OCFS will also  the traditional CPS investigation: findings of child maltreatment or probable cause . 1202. If the SSW determines an investigation to be substantiated, and the case will be opened, a Prevention Plan is completed as outlined in Case Planning SOP 7C. If the search reveals there are no reports associated with the individual’s name as an Alleged Perpetrator of child abuse or neglect, a “No Match” letter is provided. Perpetrator and parents notified of findings within 90 days. How to fight CPS and win in the USA. 2017 Child Protective Services Report The Comprehensive Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CCAPTA), P. You can also remove DCS substantiated or unsubstantiated reports of abuse and Child in Need of Services (CHINs) cases from your record. SEXUAL ABUSE: The number of cases that following investigation by Child Protection Services were determined to be substantiated sexual child abuse. In other cases CPS may get involved if there is a highly contested custody dispute between parents and allegations of maltreatment Challenging an Indicated Finding by Child Protective Services. Now, the correct terminology in Michigan is that the case is a “central registry case” if CPS classifies it under Category II or Category I. ) Substantiated cases may be retained indefinitely. In Texas, for instance, you may expunge a CPS case as soon as the department has determined that no abuse or neglect was evident. Reports of possible abuse and neglect also rose, to 8,279 in 2016, with increased awareness of a growing problem Case/ Substantiated Case A central registry/substantiated case is any case that the depart-ment determines that a preponderance of evidence of child abuse and/neglect occurred and any one of the following: The case is classified as Category I or II (Section 8 and 8d of the CPL). 2 Herein referred to as “perpetrator. If you ever discover yourself within a situation wherein you have been made the subject of a report made to the New York Child Protective Services or Administration of Children’s Services (CPS/ACS), it is important to ensure you know your rights. " CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT REPORT – FORM 431 (Child Maltreatment Information) Case Number: HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS INFORMATION. By Lawrence Jay Braunstein . O. Family Role Code: • Amendments to the Child Protective Services Law, effective in December 2014, continue to drive increases in reports of child abuse. The percent substantiated is the total number of substantiated Substantiated means supported by proof or evidence. CPS said there's an ongoing process Percentage of cases substantiated are those neglect cases, out of total investigated, that are considered substantiated child neglect. SUBSTANTIATED TOTAL 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 The federal Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) requires that persons have access to due process associated with a substantiated finding of child maltreatment. You would not be substantiated if the same thing happened today. INTRODUCTION In the year 2000, nearly twice as many referrals to child protective services (CPS) were unsubstantiated as substantiated. You represent a client who has been accused of child abuse or maltreatment (neglect). Refer to data  Findings Related to CPS Substantiation Decision from 1994 CPS Decision- . If dependency petition has been filed, this case plan must be a part of the report that is submitted to the court at the time of the Preliminary Protective Hearing. The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA), Section 5101 et seq. 3 percent, were substantiated because of neglect. In other cases, the family may be referred to a community provider for voluntary services. 1. CPS  After the investigation is finished, DCF will decide if the original report of abuse is "supported" or "not supported. 020(1)) is as follows: _____ The role of the Department for Community Based Services in investigating reports of child abuse or neglect is to assess the risk to the child and to make efforts to protect children from further risk. I'm in Michigan; when I was reported to CPS--actually, it has happened to me twice, because I am a bad, bad mother--the social worker to came to speak to me said that they have a grading system for the outcome of events, which basically goes from 1, meaning the call was completely without merit, to 5, which is "get the kid the hell out of the house now. How the Child Welfare System Works (Fact Sheet) May 8, 2012 by jeff2012 · The child welfare system is a group of services designed to promote the well-being of children by ensuring safety, achieving permanency, and strengthening families to successfully care for their children. The court does not feel constricted or limited by whether CPS has or has not substantiated a case. Program if an allegation of abuse or neglect is substantiated for a child whose parent,  Oct 6, 2017 CPS Investigation neglect, abuse, and/or abandonment) DSS can make the following case decision: (1) substantiated or (2) unsubstantiated. Most cases reported in fiscal year 2009, or 78. or that there might be differences in how these cases are handled following a report . 48-2012, SEC. State statute and policy were enacted to support agency requirements related to due process rights and included requirements for two (2) types of appeal processes. Researchers  Measures included child, caregiver, and CPS case characteristics obtained at the between initial substantiation status and five-year maltreatment recurrence,  Statewide substantiated reports of child abuse remained relatively constant from case file. Challenging an Indicated Finding by Child Protective Services. , in 2015, there were 8. Parents Rights against Social Services, Child Protective Services, Human Services false accusations. Family Services There is a database (Child Abuse Index) holds listings for people who have substantiated claims of abuse (in which they are the perpetrator) that is for the entire state. Box 4480 Albany, NY 12204-0480 Phone: (518) 474-5297 The assigned CPS case manager develops a proposed case plan for every case within 21 days of case assignment. 0 Notification of and Appeal of Substantiated Abuse and/or Neglect Findings for DCFS Rural Region . C. Sexual abuse accounted for 9. 2nd. What is the difference between substantiated and unsubstantiated? AskBug. Number of substantiated cases of abuse and neglect per 1,000 children under age 18 (e. These reports contain information related to substantiated cases of physical abuse, sexual abuse, mental/emotional abuse, and/or severe neglect of a child. Cross David Finkelhor Richard Ormrod University of New Hampshire substantiated classification of child abuse, severe child abuse, child sexual abuse or neglect, a Formal File Review of the case must be granted. While these […] Many of these reports do not receive an investigation or assessment. to child protective services (CPS) were unsub-stantiated as substantiated. You were substantiated under an old rule or policy that has changed. Subject: Notification of and Appeal of Substantiated Abuse and/or Neglect Findings for DCFS Rural Region Date: 01/30/17 DCFS Rural Region Policy Section 1202 Page 1 of 6 1202. When CPS substantiates a  Notification of Child Protective Services (CPS) Investigation Outcome Substantiated- allegation(s) of maltreatment, as defined by Georgia statute and DFCS  “substantiate" abuse/neglect after a CPS investigation. 2 in 2015. What does "Substantiated evidence" mean in a CPS case? My ex husband called CPS and told them I was doing drugs in front of my three year old daughter to gain temporary custody of her pending our Neglect consistently has been the most common type of substantiated case statewide and in nearly all counties for which data are available. Risk and past child abuse and neglect are related in that past substantiated  Being investigated by CPS is a real possibility for every foster parent. 0035, . These amendments increased the number of mandated reporters of child abuse and added additional persons who could be identified as perpetrators of child abuse. Status of cps case. Services must be provided by CPS (or foster care), in conjunction with community-based services. Dec 3, 2017 If CONNX reveals there is an open CPS investigation, the specialist . ) §49-5-182, and requires DFCS to establish and maintain a registry of all substantiated cases of abuse and neglect that occur on or after July 1, 2016, into a centralized Child Category I-Cases in which the department determines that there is a preponderance of evidence of child abuse or neglect and a court petition is needed and/or required. In a sample of 35,000 CPS cases in Missouri, three-quarters of the children who were referred to CPS two or more times—including child fatali- Indiana's Child Protective Services (CPS), protects Indiana's children from further abuse or neglect and prevents, remedies, or assists in solving problems that may result in abuse, neglect, exploitation, or delinquency of children. In cases where the CPS agency determines that the child is safe and the risk of . Data Source: The Tennessee Department of Children's Services supplied case data. A person’s name will not be placed on the Registry until all reviews or hearings have concluded or the person waived their right to due process. If a case is substantiated, CPS will generally provide continuing  At the end of that investigation, CPS makes a determination whether to substantiate the allegations. CPS receives notification: CPS is notified by a mandatory reporter, such as a teacher or doctor, or by a concerned citizen, such as a neighbor, of alleged child abuse or neglect. 8 percent of cases. of Title 42 of the United States Code, requires the Oklahoma Department of Human Services (DHS) to provide an appeal process for persons who disagree with a substantiated finding of child abuse or neglect. What does it mean when a CPS worker says they have substantiated a case? The person to whom the case is substantiated against is for sexual abuse against a minor. / POLICE INVOLVEMENT IN CHILD PROTECTIVE SERVICES Police Involvement in Child Protective Services Inves-tigations: Literature Review and Secondary Data Analysis Theodore P. 1 Policy Approval Clearance Record Notice of an Initial Determination of Substantiated Child Maltreatment and Right to Request a Review The letter may be created by the IA supervisor, worker, or person with a primary case assignment. Confirmed cases of physical abuse of children jumped 52% in Maine over 8 years. Voluntary / Unsubstantiated CPS case is closed Child remains in the home Family may receive CYFD in-home services CPS may refer family to community supports and services Voluntary / Substantiated CPS case remains open Child remains in the home Parent retains custody Family may receive CYFD in-home services Confirmed cases of physical abuse of children jumped 52% in Maine over 8 years. points in the “life” of a CPS case, from referral to case closure. CPS said there's an ongoing process Before 1999, for CPS to “substantiate” a child abuse or neglect case meant for them to classify the case under Category II or Category I. In this case, several outcomes can occur. County data on even pages from 34 to 166 – Total CPS reports and substantiated CPS reports for 2016 and 2017 were adjusted to reflect only those reports investigated by the county agency. Child Protective Services ( CPS ) agencies investigate reports of child abuse or neglect. If a case is not substantiated, it is typically much easier to have it removed from your record. Population data were from the Office of Health Statistics, Division of And while CPS or DCFS is there ONLY to take your kids, the police can and often will show up later for the parents! In fact, open your mouth and tell the CPS investigator just enough to “make their case” and you can start packing an overnight case as the police will be called by CPS who will be at your door to take you away. maltreatment, adolescent CPS reporting and substantiation patterns),  If the allegation is institutional abuse/neglect, the Office of the Child Advocate ( OCA) is assigned to the case in RICHIST in conformance with DOP: 500. I thought these dropped off after a certain amount of time. At the conclusion of an investigation, a determination is made by the CPS as to. 11 When a report is substantiated, an agency official selects and refers families to specific treatment services, monitors the treatment process, and decides whether the child can safely remain in the home during treatment. Ethnicity Family. For example, a person who files a complaint based on a personal injury and asks for recovery of medical expenses is required to substantiate the amount sought by submitting medical bills and other related receipts. Many of these reports do not receive an investigation or assessment. Coordinate   the family, without the assignment of a formal determination or substantiation of child Case Closure – the process of ending the relationship between the CPS  Nov 16, 2016 not experience substantiated abuse or neglect between involvement, the case is investigated by a social CPS must weigh the emotional. Decision-making in Unsubstantiated Child Protective Services Cases. A finding of substantiated (sometimes referred to as founded) typically means that the child protective services (CPS) agency believes that an incident of child abuse or neglect, as defined by State law, has happened. DFCS works to ensure the safety and protection of all Georgia’s children. The resolution specialist consults with the attorney handling the court case to determine whether the ARIF should proceed or be delayed, if there is a related civil or criminal court case or criminal investigation. 2 substantiated cases of abuse and neglect  substantiated cases are more likely to be biased toward the less serious end of the Validation research in CPS risk assessment: Three recent studies (pp. After being investigated by the local Child Protection Service their case has been "indicated," but no proceeding, alleging abuse or neglect pursuant to Article 10 of the Note: In the U. Instead, it may mean that there is not enough evidence to support a finding of substantiated. A clean and minimal question and answer theme for WordPress and AnsPress. Reports of possible abuse and neglect also rose, to 8,279 in 2016, with increased awareness of a growing problem "Substantiated" means that the allegation was conclusively founded. Child Abuse and Neglect Cases Substantiated and Indicated -- Victim Characteristics [Based on reports alleging child abuse and neglect that were referredfor investigation by the respective child protective services agency in each State. This is consistent with how the data has been displayed in prior years’ reports. Child Abuse Registry. Notice of an Initial Determination of Substantiated Child Maltreatment and Right to Request a Review The letter may be created by the IA supervisor, worker, or person with a primary case assignment. 5. The letter must include: How to fight CPS and win in the USA. 175, signed into law on July 31, 1997, requires IAIU to notify law enforcement authorities (local police departments and the State police for communities in which there is no local police protection) of all reports in which child abuse or neglect was Substantiated. The role of the Department for  TITLE 1. This is where a case decision is made whether to substantiate the allegation. MT. Children’s Law Center Kids’ Voice of Indiana Introduction The Indiana Department of Child Services (DCS) is the State agency designated to receive reports of child abuse and neglect. 1 However, many of the children in unsubstantiated cases become the subjects of subsequent CPS referrals. Data are based on a calendar year. Child Name SSN Date of Birth Gender Hispanic. finds that the person was not a perpetrator of the child abuse or neglect that occurred. not substantiated: adjective baseless , empty , flimsy , groundless , ill-conceived , ill-founded , inconclusive , insubstantial , not proven, poorly argued Child Protective Services (CPS) Focus. Rate is per 1,000 child population younger than age 18. Theme can be used (166) "Intrastate children's protective services referral" is a report concerning alleged, indicated, or substantiated child abuse and neglect made by one Ohio PCSA to another Ohio PCSA for the purpose of requesting the provision of protective services. How do I report child abuse? What is a Relative Care Subsidy? What is a case plan? What are Homestead services? What is a Mandated Reporter? What does substantiated mean? How long is a Child Protective Services (CPS) Investigation? What is a safety resource placement? What is a 72 hour hearing? What is the chain of command in a county office 1262 Delaying the ARIF Because of a Court Case or Criminal Investigation. S. Family Role Code: If you would like information about your case, including appeals, expunging of records, or obtaining copies of your records, you may write to the Director of the State Central Register of Child Abuse: New York State Office of Children and Family Services State Central Register P. Substantiated cases may be retained indefinitely. It is also searched as part of a background check for anyone working in a school, daycare or volunteering with children. DCS will maintain Child Abuse and Neglect (CA/N) files of The Attorney General administers the Child Abuse Central Index (CACI), which was created by the Legislature in 1965 as a tool for state and local agencies to help protect the health and safety of California's children. Your court Child Protective case was dismissed without a finding of jeopardy. However, the Division will keep the case information in its files and it cannot be expunged (erased). Definitions: Unduplicated counts of child abuse and neglect cases for which sufficient evidence exists. However, many of the children in unsubstantiated cases become the subjects of subsequent CPS referrals. 1997, c. This is accessible only by CPS or law enforcement. ) The Indiana Department of Child Services (DCS) will ensure records are maintained in accordance with the rules and regulations set forth in IC 31-33-26-15, IC 31-33-27 and the DCS Records Retention Schedule. SACWIS Registry search confirms whether an individual has been named an Alleged Perpetrator for a Substantiated or Indicated report of child abuse or neglect. 1 Policy Approval Clearance Record How to fight CPS and win in the USA. 1 Exception: This Formal File Review does not apply to the classification “allegation substantiated, sexually reactive child”. How do I get a copy of a case record? Child Protective Services (CPS) becomes involved with children and families when they are referred by the DFPS Investigations division, which investigates allegations of child abuse and neglect. ” A substantiated child abuse or neglect report means a determination regarding the status of the report whenever facts obtained during an assessment of the report provide a preponderance of evidence that child abuse or neglect has occurred. substantiated cps case

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